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Politics and Culture

AAPI Data|Momentive poll: American experiences with discrimination 2022

AAPI Data|Momentive poll: American experiences with discrimination 2022

Key Findings:

  • Not all AAPI individuals identify as people of color--those who do are more likely to to have experienced discrimination or a hate crime, and are more aware of the increasing threat of hate crimes against their community.
  • Hate crime experiences among AAPI in early 2022 have decreased from the previous year, and are on par with other ethnicities. However, worry of being a victim among AAPI is higher than of other communities of color.
  • AAPI show signs of increasing trust in the justice system, but continue to be more wary than Americans overall toward reporting hate crimes due to fear of retaliation and unwanted attention. 
  • Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander respondents see a decline in unfair treatment from the previous year, but still experience them at much higher rates compared to their Asian or Asian American counterparts.
  • AAPI activate different aspects of their identity when working,socializing compared to other ethnic groups.

Not all AAPI individuals identify as people of color--those who do are more likely to to have experienced discrimination or a hate crime, and are more aware of the increasing threat of hate crimes against their community.

AAPI individuals who consider themselves a person say of color are more likely to say they’ve been a victim of a hate crime or discrimination and aware of the growing amount of hate crimes against the AAPI community. 

  • Two-thirds (63%) of AAPI adults consider themselves a person of color (compared with 87% of Blacks, 48% of Hispanics, 49% of Native or American Indians, 6% of whites).  
  • U.S.-born South Asians (84%) are most likely of all AAPI adults to consider themselves a person of color. 
  • U.S. born AAPI men (59%) are least likely to consider themselves a person of color, while U.S. born women (73%) are more likely to say they are a person of color. 
  • AAPI who identify as POC are more likely to say they’ve been treated unfairly because of their race (69% vs 53%).
  • AAPI who say they are a person of color are more aware of the increase of hate crimes against their community (58% vs 39%).
AAPI - Identify as a person of colorAAPI - Do not identify as a person of colorΔ
Have you received poorer service than other people at restaurants or stores?(% yes)36%22%14%
Have people acted as if you don’t speak English?(% yes)46%32%14%
Have people asked where you are from, assuming you're not from the U.S.?(% yes)63%52%11%
Have you ever been unfairly denied a promotion?(% yes)25%14%11%
For unfair reasons, do you think you have ever not been hired for a job?(% yes)29%19%10%
Have you ever moved into a neighborhood where neighbors made life difficult for you or your family?(% yes)22%13%9%
Have you been called names or insulted?(% yes)38%29%9%
Have people mocked or made offensive physical gestures towards you?(% yes)33%24%9%

Hate crime experiences among AAPI in early 2022 have decreased from the previous year, and are on par with other ethnicities. However, worry of being a victim among AAPI is higher than other communities of color.

Nearly half (48%) of the general public believes that hate crimes against AAPI individuals have increased from the previous year, higher than what the general public believes for the Black (29%) or Hispanic (20%) community. However, 1 in 4 (28%) AAPI say they’ve been a victim of a hate crime so far in 2022, which is lower than last year where 38% of AAPI reported being a victim of  a hate crime by March 2021. All racial groups experienced a hate crime in early 2022 at similar rates (28% of Hispanics, 27% of Blacks, 28% of AAPI, and 22% of whites say they’ve been a victim of a hate crime this year). AAPI are more likely to say they’re not sure if they’ve been a victim of a hate crime compared to other ethnicities (9% AAPI, 5% of Hispanics, 4% of whites, 3% of Blacks are not sure whether they’ve been a victim of a hate crime).

Percent who responded “yes” to experiencing a hate crime or hate incident(AAPI Respondents)
March 2021 SurveyMarch 2022 Survey
Did you experience any hate crimes or hate incidents before the coronavirus pandemic in 2020?75%71%
Did you experience any hate crimes or hate incidents last year, in 2020?45%
Have you experienced any hate crimes or hate incidents this year, in 2021?38%
Did you experience any hate crimes or hate incidents last year, in 2021?54%
Have you experienced any hate crimes or hate incidents this year, in 2022?28%

A large majority (83%) of AAPI individuals say they are worried about a future increase in hate crimes against their community, on par with 82% of Blacks who say the same but significantly higher than among Hispanics (74%),  Native American/American Indians 65%), and whites (59%). Within the AAPI community, women are more concerned than men (85% vs 80%). Southeast Asians are the most concerned community: 87% of Southeast Asians say they are worried about a future increase in hate crimes, compared with 83% of East Asians, 82% of Pacific Islanders, and 79% of South Asians.

The fear of hate crimes extends to parents concerned about their children. Nearly all (83%) AAPI parents say they are concerned that their child might be bullied due to their race/ethnicity, including 42% who say they are very concerned. This is the highest level of concern among all ethnic groups (73% of Blacks, 65% of Hispanics, and 39% of whites are concerned their children might be bullied due to their race/ethnicity).

AAPI show signs of increasing trust in the justice system, but continue to be more wary than Americans overall toward reporting hate crimes due to fear of retaliation and unwanted attention 

Two-thirds (68%) of AAPI are comfortable reporting hate crimes to authorities, including 30% who are “very comfortable.” This is slightly up from 2021, when 64% of AAPI reported they are comfortable reporting hate crimes. The number of AAPI who are comfortable reporting a hate crime remains lower than the overall population–78% overall, including 55% who are “very comfortable” (81% of whites, 75% of Hispanics/Latinos, 73% of Blacks, 70% of Native Americans are comfortable reporting a hate crime).

  • 69% of AAPI would be reluctant to report for fear it would lead to unwanted attention to themselves or their families, up slightly from 2021 (63%), and higher than Americans overall (46%).
  • 62% AAPI are concerned that reporting hate crime would lead to another attack (39% among Americans overall), on par with 2021 (61% AAPI and 41% Americans overall).
  • 57% are confident that justice will be served if reported, up from 53% in 2021 (and higher than overall (53%).
20212022YoY Δ
How comfortable would you be reporting a hate crime to law enforcement authorities?(% very comfortable or somewhat comfortable)Overall73%78%+5
AAPI64%69%+5
I would be reluctant to report a hate crime because it would bring unwanted attention to me or my family. (% strongly agree or somewhat agree)Overall49%46%-3
AAPI63%68%+5
I would be concerned about reporting a hate crime because I might get attacked again.(% strongly agree or somewhat agree)Overall41%39%-2
AAPI61%62%+1
If I reported a hate crime, I am confident that justice will be served.(% strongly agree or somewhat agree)Overall52%53%+1
AAPI53%57%+4

 Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander respondents see a decline in unfair treatment from the previous year, but still experience them at much higher rates compared to their Asian or Asian American counterparts

AAPI individuals say their community shares a common culture (54%) and a common race (40%). However, in nearly every instance of unfair treatment or hate crimes experienced by AAPI, NHPI experienced it to a greater extent than Asians. 

  • 42% NHPI insulted or called names (34% Asian or Asian Americans), lower than in 2021 (46% and 39% respectively)
  • 40% NHPI received poorer service at restaurants or stores (31% Asian or Asian Americans), down from 45% in 2021
  • 33% NHPI had people act afraid of them (18% Asian or Asian Americans), down from 38% from 2021
  • 38% NHPI have not been hired to a job for unfair reasons (25% Asian or Asian Americans), on par with 2021 (33% NHPI and 27% Asian or Asian American)
  • 31% unfairly fired from a job (17% Asian or Asian Americans), on par with 30% in 2021
  • 26% moved to a neighborhood and had neighbors make life difficult (18% Asian or Asian Americans), down from 30% in 2021
  • 24% unfairly prevented from moving to a neighborhood (13% Asian or Asian Americans), nearly identical to 2021 (25%)
  • 28% unfairly stopped, searched, questioned, physically threatened/abused by police (17% Asian or Asian Americans), on par with 2021 (32%)
  • 27% discouraged by a teacher to continue education (16% Asian or Asian Americans), down from 32% in 2021
  • 18% of NHPI say their property has been defaced with graffiti or vandalized–the highest of all ethnic groups (16% of Native American or American Indians, 12% of Blacks, 9% of Hispanics, 8% of whites, 8% of Asians). 
20212022YoY Δ
Have you been called names or insulted?(% yes)NHPI46%40%-6
AAPI39%34%-5
Have you received poorer service than other people at restaurants or stores?(% yes)NHPI45%40%-5
AAPI30%31%+1
Have people acted as if they are afraid of you?(% yes)NHPI38%33%-5
AAPI18%18%-
For unfair reasons, do you think you have ever not been hired for a job?(% yes)NHPI33%38%+5
AAPI26%25%-1
Have you ever been unfairly fired from a job?(% yes)NHPI30%31%+1
AAPI16%17%+1
Have you ever moved into a neighborhood where neighbors made life difficult for you or your family?(% yes)NHPI30%26%-4
AAPI16%19%+3
Do you think you have ever been unfairly prevented from moving into a neighborhood because the landlord or a realtor refused to sell or rent you a house or apartment?(% yes)NHPI25%24%-1
AAPI10%14%+4
Have you ever been unfairly stopped, searched, questioned, physically threatened or abused by the police?(% yes)NHPI32%28%-4
AAPI14%17%+3
Have you ever been unfairly discouraged by a teacher or advisor from continuing your education?(% yes)NHPI32%27%-5
AAPI12%16%+4
  • Top reason AAPI respondents cite for having been treated unfairly is their “race or ethnicity” (64% vs 71% in 2021); 2.5x the other items listed and +26pps greater than overall. 
OverallAAPI
20212022YoY Δ20212022YoY Δ
Race or ethnicity40%38%-271%64%-7
Accent10%10%-24%27%+3
Name10%11%+122%24%+2
Age27%28%+123%22%-1
Gender31%26%-526%19%-7
Income level or social class25%28%+316%19%+3
Religion10%12%+214%18%+4
Wearing a mask10%16%
Food4%15%
Caste background7%8%+19%11%+2
Sexual orientation9%8%-110%9%-1

AAPI activate different aspects of their identity when working, socializing compared to other ethnic groups

Among employed U.S. adults, AAPI workers were most likely to say that educational attainment (71% of AAPI, 62% of Blacks, 53% of Hispanics, 51% of Native Americans, 48% of whites) and age (57% of AAPI, 51 % of Blacks, 41% of Hispanics, 39% of Native Americans, 32% of whites) are the most relevant aspects of their identity when it comes to how they're treated at work. 

  • AAPI are among the most likely to say race is a relevant aspect of their identity at work (58% of Blacks, 57% of AAPI, 41% of Hispanics, 39% of Native Americans, 20% of whites). 
  • SE Asians were most likely to say their race (63% of SE Asians, 57% of East Asians, 51% of South Asians) and gender (55% of SE Asians, 45% of East Asians, 43% of South Asians) is relevant.
  • While U.S. and foreign-born East Asians have similar views on which identities they activate at work, South and SE Asians born in the U.S. differ greatly from their countrymen born in their native country. U.S. born South Asians and SE Asians born in another country are more likely to activate their identity.
When it comes to how you are treated AT WORK, how relevant are the following aspects of your identity or background?South Asian - US bornSouth Asian - Another countryΔSE Asian - US bornSE Asian - Another countryΔ
Your age (% relevant)66%48%+18%51%64%-13%
Your educational background  (%relevant)79%71%+8%60%76%-16%
Your gender identification  (%relevant)49%42%+7%43%59%-16%
Your race  (%relevant)69%48%+21%48%69%-21%
Your sexual orientation  (%relevant)42%34%+8%33%52%-19%

AAPI individuals are most likely of all races to find age, educational background, gender identification, race, and sexual orientation relevant when choosing friends:

  • 67% of AAPI, 58% of Blacks, 47% of Hispanics, 42% of Native Americans, 39% of whites say age is relevant.
  • 66% of AAPI, 60% of Blacks, 46% of Hispanics, 37% of Native Americans, 21% of whites say race is relevant.
    • AAPI men (54%) and women (62%) born in the U.S. are less likely to say this is relevant than AAPI men (66%) and women (71%) born in another country. 
  • 64% of AAPI,  62% of Blacks, 47% of Hispanics, 45% of Native Americans, 35% of white say educational attainment is relevant.
    • South Asians (71%) are more likely to say this is relevant than  East asians (60%) or SE Asians (65%).
    • AAPI men (55%) and women (54%) born in the U.S. are less likely to say this is relevant than AAPI men (69%) and women (65%) born in another country. 
  • 56% of AAPI, 53% of Blacks, 42% of Hispanics, 34% of Native Americans, 28% of whites say gender identification is relevant.
  • 51% of AAPI, 48% of Blacks, 37% of Hispanics, 33% of Native Americans, 26% of whites say sexual orientation is relevant.

Read more about our polling methodology here

Click through all the results in the interactive toplines below: