Renal replacement therapy modalities in intensive care units in 2021:
an international survey

Numerous renal replacement therapy (RRT) modalities are available in intensive care units (ICU). They differ according to the duration of the session (intermittent hemodialysis = IHD, continuous renal replacement therapy = CRRT or slow low-efficiency dialysis = SLED) and the mechanism of solute removal (diffusion, convection or combination of both). However, few studies compared those different modalities and evidence supporting the choice of RRT modality in the ICU remains scarce. The aim of the Surv-RRT study is to describe the RRT modalities and settings used in ICUs worldwide and factors influencing the choice of a given modality.  

You are invited to participate because you are a doctor or a nurse working in the ICU. Two versions of the survey are available, one addressed to physicians and one to nurses. It takes approximately 10 to 15 minutes to complete the survey, from a computer or a smartphone on the SurveyMonkey® platform. The results of this study will help us to design further investigations and educational programs regarding the use of RRT in the ICU.

Study participation is voluntary, and consent will be assumed with study completion.  Your answers are anonymous. No personal data will be collected. This survey is endorsed by the ESICM – the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. If you have any questions, you can contact the principal investigator, Pr Thomas Rimmelé (

Importantly, if you work in different units, please answer the survey based on the information you have within the ICU you are the most involved in /spend most of your time.

Thank you for participating! The Surv-RRT team: Arnaud Marel, Céline Monard, Marlies Osterman,Antoine Schneider, Michael Joannidis, Thomas Rimmelé

RRT = Renal Replacement Therapy
CRRT = Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy
ICU = Intensive Care Unit
IHD = Intermittent Hemodialysis
CVVHD = Continuous Veno-Venous Hemodialysis
CVVH = Continuous Veno-Venous Hemofiltration
CVVHDF = Continuous Veno-Venous Hemodiafiltration
SLED = Sustained Low-Efficiency Dialysis
RCA = Regional Citrate Anticoagulation
UFH = Unfractionated Heparin
LMWH = Low Molecular Weight Heparin

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