Visual Preference Survey

In an effort to minimize and/or eliminate the impacts of flooding along the Choptank River and Cambridge Creek, grant funding has been secured to develop the Cambridge Shoreline Resilience Plan. Sources of flooding in Cambridge include high tides, major storms and sea level rise. Flood impacts are projected to increase in the future, therefore the City is planning for both today and tomorrow.

As one of the initial steps, the City would like to collect information from the public using this Visual Preference Survey. On the following pages there are images of various flood risk reduction solutions used around the world. Please rate your opinion about these images on a scale of 1 to 5. A score of 1 indicates a very negative opinion while a score of 5 indicates a very positive opinion. Please rate each image independently and not in comparison to other images.

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* 1. Do you live in the City of Cambridge?

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* 2. Do you own or operate a business within the City of Cambridge?

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Waterfront Park Levee
Reduce the impacts of flooding by creating a space that can capture and store floodwaters during flood events with minimal damage to the park infrastructure, reducing the overall extent of a single flood event and the damage that it causes.

<span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Waterfront Park Levee</span><br><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: #4a4a4a; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Reduce the impacts of flooding by creating a space that can capture and store floodwaters during flood events with minimal damage to the park infrastructure, reducing the overall extent of a single flood event and the damage that it causes.</span>

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* 3. Please rate your opinion on the image above.

  1 - Very Negative 2 - Negative 3 - Neutral 4 - Positive 5 - Very Positive
Waterfront Park Levee

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Vegetated Horizontal Levee
By including natural habitats on the waterside of a hardened structure, a horizontal levee system reduces coastal erosion issues and shoreline flooding by relying on the ability of the coastal habitats to absorb wave energy and slow down floodwaters.  In essence, by including a natural edge, the flood reduction associated with the levee now occurs along a horizontal gradient as well as a vertical one.

Vegetated Horizontal Levee<br><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: #4a4a4a; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">By including natural habitats on the waterside of a hardened structure, a horizontal levee system reduces coastal erosion issues and shoreline flooding by relying on the ability of the coastal habitats to absorb wave energy and slow down floodwaters.  In essence, by including a natural edge, the flood reduction associated with the levee now occurs along a horizontal gradient as well as a vertical one.</span>

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* 4. Please rate your opinion on the image above.

  1 - Very Negative 2 - Negative 3 - Neutral 4 - Positive 5 - Very Positive
Vegetated Horizontal Levee

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Living Breakwater
Reduce the effects of storm surge and coastal erosion by absorbing wave energy during storm events.  As waves break on the structure, their energy is reduced, calming waters on the shoreward side of the breakwater and reducing the direct impacts to the shoreline. Oyster reefs serve as natural breakwaters- their physical structure absorbs the force of waves, creating calmer waters on the shoreline side of the reef and reducing the impacts of erosion.

Living Breakwater <br><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: #4a4a4a; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Reduce the effects of storm surge and coastal erosion by absorbing wave energy during storm events.  As waves break on the structure, their energy is reduced, calming waters on the shoreward side of the breakwater and reducing the direct impacts to the shoreline. Oyster reefs serve as natural breakwaters- their physical structure absorbs the force of waves, creating calmer waters on the shoreline side of the reef and reducing the impacts of erosion.</span>

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* 5. Please rate your opinion on the image above.

  1 - Very Negative 2 - Negative 3 - Neutral 4 - Positive 5 - Very Positive
Living Breakwater

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Inflatable Barrier
Temporary flood protection measure deployed prior to flood event. Image on the right depicts inflatable barrier being filled pre-event, while image on the left depicts inflatable barriers in use during event.

Inflatable Barrier<br><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: #4a4a4a; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Temporary flood protection measure deployed prior to flood event. Image on the right depicts inflatable barrier being filled pre-event, while image on the left depicts inflatable barriers in use during event.</span>

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* 6. Please rate your opinion on the image above.

  1 - Very Negative 2 - Negative 3 - Neutral 4 - Positive 5 - Very Positive
Inflatable Barrier

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Modular Flood Barrier
Temporary flood protection measure that is deployed prior to flood event.  Image on right depicts module barriers collapsed when not in use and stored, while image on right depicts module barriers in use during event.   

Modular Flood Barrier<br><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12pt; color: #4a4a4a;">Temporary flood protection measure that is deployed prior to flood event.  Image on right depicts module barriers collapsed when not in use and stored, while image on right depicts module barriers in use during event.   </span>

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* 7. Please rate your opinion on the image above.

  1 - Very Negative 2 - Negative 3 - Neutral 4 - Positive 5 - Very Positive
Modular Flood Barrier

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Flood Plank Barrier
Semi-permanent flood protection measure that builds on existing flood wall structure to provide additional protection during extreme events or expected rises in sea level. The planks are designed to be interchangeable that offer different levels of protection. Technology is referred to as mobile-bearing flood wall.

Flood Plank Barrier<br><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12pt; color: #4a4a4a;">Semi-permanent flood protection measure that builds on existing flood wall structure to provide additional protection during extreme events or expected rises in sea level. The planks are designed to be interchangeable that offer different levels of protection. Technology is referred to as mobile-bearing flood wall.</span>

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* 8. Please rate your opinion on the image above.

  1 - Very Negative 2 - Negative 3 - Neutral 4 - Positive 5 - Very Positive
Flood Plank Barrier

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Floodwall
Permanent flood protection measure constructed to prevent water intrusion. Floodwalls must be specially designed to resist the pressure caused by the floodwater acting on one side of the wall. While floodwalls are often constructed of reinforced concrete, they can be faced with more attractive building materials or integrated into the landscaping of the site to be more attractive and less conspicuous.

Floodwall<br><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12pt; color: #4a4a4a;">Permanent flood protection measure constructed to prevent water intrusion. Floodwalls must be specially designed to resist the pressure caused by the floodwater acting on one side of the wall. While floodwalls are often constructed of reinforced concrete, they can be faced with more attractive building materials or integrated into the landscaping of the site to be more attractive and less conspicuous.</span>

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* 9. Please rate your opinion on the image above.

  1 - Very Negative 2 - Negative 3 - Neutral 4 - Positive 5 - Very Positive
Floodwall

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Glazed Retention Wall
Permanent flood protection measure constructed to prevent water intrusion. Glazed section is added to traditional concrete retention section to soften views and provide esthetic value. The glazed material can be constructed to offer different height ratios and levels of protection.

Glazed Retention Wall<br><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12pt; color: #4a4a4a;">Permanent flood protection measure constructed to prevent water intrusion. Glazed section is added to traditional concrete retention section to soften views and provide esthetic value. The glazed material can be constructed to offer different height ratios and levels of protection.</span>

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* 10. Please rate your opinion on the image above.

  1 - Very Negative 2 - Negative 3 - Neutral 4 - Positive 5 - Very Positive
Glazed Retention Wall

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Vegetated Geocellular Floodwall
This permanent flood wall is designed as a gravity structure without reinforcement that is applied to a change in grade application. The Geocellular wall is an alternative to a levee or rip rap that will produce similar level of flood protection.

Vegetated Geocellular Floodwall<br><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12pt; color: #4a4a4a;">This permanent flood wall is designed as a gravity structure without reinforcement that is applied to a change in grade application. The Geocellular wall is an alternative to a levee or rip rap that will produce similar level of flood protection.</span>

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* 11. Please rate your opinion on the image above.

  1 - Very Negative 2 - Negative 3 - Neutral 4 - Positive 5 - Very Positive
Vegetated Geocellular Floodwall

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Revetment
Permanent sloping flood protection measure constructed from permeable materials using natural stones or concrete blocks or recycled materials thereby enhancing wave energy absorption and minimizing reflection and wave run-up.

Revetment<br><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12pt; color: #4a4a4a;">Permanent sloping flood protection measure constructed from permeable materials using natural stones or concrete blocks or recycled materials thereby enhancing wave energy absorption and minimizing reflection and wave run-up.</span>

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* 12. Please rate your opinion on the image above.

  1 - Very Negative 2 - Negative 3 - Neutral 4 - Positive 5 - Very Positive
Revetment

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Revetment and Breakwaters
Permanent flood protection measure that combines revetment measures described above with additional protection from wave activity in the waters through the placement of breakwaters. Breakwater aim to provide additional protection to shoreline by reducing wave activity in the waters between initial impact and the shoreline.  

Revetment and Breakwaters<br><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12pt; color: #4a4a4a;">Permanent flood protection measure that combines revetment measures described above with additional protection from wave activity in the waters through the placement of breakwaters. Breakwater aim to provide additional protection to shoreline by reducing wave activity in the waters between initial impact and the shoreline.  </span>

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* 13. Please rate your opinion on the image above.

  1 - Very Negative 2 - Negative 3 - Neutral 4 - Positive 5 - Very Positive
Revetment and Breakwater

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Revetment with Sill & Marsh
Permanent flood protection measure that combines revetment measures described above with additional protection from a low-profile nature-based structures that is created from sand fill and planted marsh. Marsh sill placement is site-specific depending on bank height and whether bank grading can also be performed, the water depth and bottom type near the shoreline, and the potential for successful marsh vegetation growth.

Revetment with Sill &amp; Marsh<br><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12pt; color: #4a4a4a;">Permanent flood protection measure that combines revetment measures described above with additional protection from a low-profile nature-based structures that is created from sand fill and planted marsh. Marsh sill placement is site-specific depending on bank height and whether bank grading can also be performed, the water depth and bottom type near the shoreline, and the potential for successful marsh vegetation growth.</span>

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* 14. Please rate your opinion on the image above.

  1 - Very Negative 2 - Negative 3 - Neutral 4 - Positive 5 - Very Positive
Revetment with Sill & Marsh

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Berm
Permanent structure that combines flood protection and natural habitats or recreational options. An engineered berm reduces shoreline flooding by relying on the ability of coastal habitats to absorb wave energy and slow down floodwaters. By including a natural edge with wet meadow and emergent plants, flood reduction associated with the berm occurs on horizontal and vertical gradients.

Berm<br><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12pt; color: #4a4a4a;">Permanent structure that combines flood protection and natural habitats or recreational options. An engineered berm reduces shoreline flooding by relying on the ability of coastal habitats to absorb wave energy and slow down floodwaters. By including a natural edge with wet meadow and emergent plants, flood reduction associated with the berm occurs on horizontal and vertical gradients.</span>

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* 15. Please rate your opinion on the image above.

  1 - Very Negative 2 - Negative 3 - Neutral 4 - Positive 5 - Very Positive
Berm

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Headland Control Breakwaters
Permanent land mass with a considerable elevation that extend the borders of beaches and shorelines. Headlands compartmentalize sand transport along the shore and absorb the force of waves, creating calmer waters on the shoreline side and reducing impacts of erosion.

Headland Control Breakwaters<br><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12pt; color: #4a4a4a;">Permanent land mass with a considerable elevation that extend the borders of beaches and shorelines. Headlands compartmentalize sand transport along the shore and absorb the force of waves, creating calmer waters on the shoreline side and reducing impacts of erosion.</span>

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* 16. Please rate your opinion on the image above.

  1 - Very Negative 2 - Negative 3 - Neutral 4 - Positive 5 - Very Positive
Headland Control Breakwaters

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Detached Breakwater
Permanent flood protection measure that reduces the effects of storm surge and coastal erosion by absorbing wave energy during storm events.  As waves break on the structure their energy is reduced, calming waters on the shoreward side and reducing the direct impacts to the shoreline.

Detached Breakwater<br><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12pt; color: #4a4a4a;">Permanent flood protection measure that reduces the effects of storm surge and coastal erosion by absorbing wave energy during storm events.  As waves break on the structure their energy is reduced, calming waters on the shoreward side and reducing the direct impacts to the shoreline.</span>

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* 17. Please rate your opinion on the image above.

  1 - Very Negative 2 - Negative 3 - Neutral 4 - Positive 5 - Very Positive
Detached Breakwater

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Natural Bulkhead
Permanent structures that are normally constructed in the form of a vertical wall using stone, concrete. Bulkheads are structure that are used to retain fills along the shoreline. The function of a bulkhead is to retain or prevent the sliding of land at the transition between the land, filled or natural, and water.

Natural Bulkhead<br><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12pt; color: #4a4a4a;">Permanent structures that are normally constructed in the form of a vertical wall using stone, concrete. Bulkheads are structure that are used to retain fills along the shoreline. The function of a bulkhead is to retain or prevent the sliding of land at the transition between the land, filled or natural, and water.</span>

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* 18. Please rate your opinion on the image above.

  1 - Very Negative 2 - Negative 3 - Neutral 4 - Positive 5 - Very Positive
Natural Bulkhead

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* 19. Would you like to receive additional information regarding the Cambridge Shoreline Resiliency Plan? If so, please provide your email.

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