1. Introduction:

Background: Adhering to a relevant research ethics framework and associated practices are essential for every successful research project. Different countries have different strategies in place to safeguard patients as potential participants in research but also to safeguard staff and researchers.

Aim: the aim of this project is to support the standardisation and optimisation of radiography (medical imaging, radiotherapy, and nuclear medicine) research ethics processes in Europe; make the various regulations more transparent; and offer advice for Radiography researchers in Europe.


- Identify and understand the variability of research ethics procedures and guidelines in Europe for Radiography (medical imaging, radiotherapy, and nuclear medicine) research (online survey)
- Offer recommendations for best practice with the aim to create a more standardised evidence-based approach to research ethics protocols in Radiography in Europe (recommendations report)
- Foster an ethical culture in radiography research and facilitate ethical decisions specific to radiography research

Methods: A research ethics survey has been designed on the SurveyMonkey® online platform which consists of open and closed questions and will take approximately 15 minutes to complete.

The results will be analysed using descriptive statistics (for the demographics and closed type questions) and thematic analysis (for the open-ended questions). The results will be presented at conferences and disseminated through a journal publication. A report will be provided to EFRS for distribution to its members.

Ethical Approval: Ethics has been granted for this project by the City, University of London, SHS Research Ethics Committee (Reference: ETH1920-0977). Gatekeeper’s approval has been granted through the EFRS Executive Board, to approach their member organisations.

Expected outcome: This study will be the first of its kind to map out research ethics practice of radiography in Europe and it is hoped that this can serve as the starting point for standardisation and optimisation of research ethics approval processes in radiography research.

Data use: Data collected via the SurveyMonkey® online platform as part of the EFRS sponsored RRESFE project will be utilised for the purpose of the project.

Data collection and data management will be in full and direct compliance with General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). Data will be in the form of encrypted, access controlled electronic records and will be stored for 1 year following study completion at which point all records will be destroyed.

All response will be anonymous with no personal data collected.

For any questions on this survey please contact:
Dr. Christina Malamateniou (Christina.Malamateniou@city.ac.uk)
Dr. Jonathan McNulty (jonathan.mcnulty@ucd.ie)