This Risk Assessment must be completed in order to receive your latest environmental culture results.  We will send results to you and your veterinarian and then you can discuss your results and develop your Management Plan for the upcoming year.

Scoring should be based on current observed management practices.

There are no right or wrong answers.  Pick the option that best applies to your farm management practices.

An assessment of risk practices, in conjunction with the herd environmental culture data, will aid in determining priority areas for controlling within herd and between herd spread of the Johne's bacterium. 

* Farm Name:

* Owner's Name:

* Veterinarian

* Date of assessment (dd/mm/yy):

* Dairy Board #:

Section 1:    General Johne's and Biosecurity Questions

* 1.1     What access do farm visitors have to cattle of any age on the farm?
Comment: Controlled access to livestock is a cornerstone of infectious disease biosecurity.

* 1.2 Have you ever had cows in your herd with clinical Johne's disease or test positive?
Comment: Herds with a known history of clinical Johne's disease have high risk of still having the infection and require appropriate management to limit within herd spread.

* 1.3     Did you purchase animals in the last 5 years?
Comment: The introduction of infected animals from other infected herds is the way JD moves from herd to herd. Introducing animals from multiple herds is associated with both an increased risk of introducing MAP, as well as with having a higher percentage of the herd being test positive.  If animals need to be purchased, buy from low risk herds (herds with a testing history).  Tests of individual animals prior to purchase do not provide evidence of the infection status of that individual.

* 1.4 Are any animals from your herd directly commingled with adult animals from other herds OR is there potential for exposure to manure from other farms?
Comment: Both cattle and manure from other farms pose a high risk for introduction of the bacteria to the farm. Risk associated with contract heifer rearing is addressed in a different question.

Section 2: Calving Area Risk Management

* 2.1     How many cows are newborn calves exposed to in the calving area?
Comment: This is a question to assess the number of cows (and the amount of cow manure) a newborn calf is likely exposed to in the calving area.

* 2.2     To what extent is the calving area used for sick or lame cows?
Comment: This is a question to assess the number of cows (and the amount of cow manure) a newborn calf is likely exposed to in the calving area.

* 2.3 What is the likelihood that calves stay with their mothers and allowed to nurse their dams?
Comments: Assesses the probability that the calf will ingest bacteria from the cows.

Section 3: Heifer Risk Management

* 3.1 What is the source of colostrum fed to calves?
Comment: Colostrum can be a source of infection for calves in infected herds, particularly if some brood cows are in the late subclinical or early clinical stages.  The best programs eliminate the pathogen by pasteurization or using artificial colostrum.

* 3.2     What is the source of the liquid diet fed to calves?
Comment: Milk can be a source of infection for calves in infected herds, particularly if some animals are in the late subclinical or early clinical stages.  The best programs eliminate the pathogen by pasteurization or using artificial milk replacer.  Non-saleable milk is milk from treated, mastitic or fresh cows.  Compromised and older animals may be more at risk of advanced JD and therefore shedding in their milk.

* 3.3 What is the heifer environment like and is manure handling equipment used for feed or is feed shared between adults and heifers?
Comment: Heifers can be directly exposed to MAP if feeding hygiene is not excellent.  Using equipment with potential for manure contamination indicates poor attention to overall hygiene.

* 3.4       To what extent are animals exposed to manure on forage or pasture?
Comment: Heifers can be directly exposed to MAP from manure contamination from cows in either pasture (higher risk) or stored feeds (lower risk).

T