Introductory Information

Thank you for taking time out of your day to consider participating in this study. Please read the following information about participation.

You are being asked to participate in this study via online survey software because you are at least 18 years of age and you are the parent or legal guardian of a child born with a lifelong disability who may have a typically developing biological sibling (i.e., non-disabled) who is 4-7 years of age, both of whom were born in the USA and currently living in the same home with you in the USA. If this does not describe you, please do not continue and close out your browser. The demographic information should take about 5 minutes to complete and the questionnaire should take an additional 5-10 minutes to complete.

The purpose of this study is to identify both strengths and difficulties of children 4-7 years of age, without disabilities, who have a biological sibling born with a lifelong disability (example: born blind, born with a chromosomal abnormality, etc). Please note that siblings of children with disabilities from maternal substance abuse are excluded from this study. This study also excludes siblings of children whose only diagnosis is autism as it is not yet known whether autism can ever be diagnosed at birth. If a diagnosis was not detected at or prior to the time of birth, but could have been caught otherwise, the biological sibling may still be included in the study. This study seeks to shed light for counselors of this population so as to aid in the search for strengths at an intake session as well as potential areas for growth. The study uses the Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire (USA version developed by Robert Goodman in 2005) to gather parent/guardian reports about the functioning of the sibling in five areas: prosocial skills (strengths), conduct problems, emotional problems, hyperactivity-inattention, and peer problems.

First, you will complete the demographic information form, followed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Participation in this study is voluntary and will be anonymous (other than your IP address) as you will not be asked to reveal your identity and data will be reported in an aggregate form. You do not have to answer any question you do not wish to answer, as you may discontinue participation at any time. No payment is provided for participating in this study. If you have the only child in the study / the USA who has a sibling with an extremely rare disorder, others may know you participated when reviewing the list of siblings' disabilities. The questionnaire you are being asked to complete is about the typically developing sibling (non-disabled) who is 4-7 years of age.  

Please direct any questions or directions to be excluded from the study to the principal investigator, Joseph Rufus Wofford, via email at

By entering information in the demographic form and/or the questionnaire, you are agreeing  that you have read and agree to the information indicated above and to have your answers included in the study.

* 1. Do you consent with your personal data being processed as described above? You must click Yes in order to take the survey.