Feasts and Thanksgivings

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* 1. November 5th is the feast day for what saint whose words became part of the Hail Mary prayer?

The answer is St. Elizabeth, mother of John the Baptist

What we know of St. Elizabeth comes from the Gospel, especially the book of Luke.  She is the cousin of the Virgin Mary, the wife of Zechariah, and the mother of John the Baptist.  After the Annunciation of the Lord, Mary journeyed to Judah to visit Elizabeth, and as she entered the house of Zechariah, Mary greeted Elizabeth.  "When Elizabeth heard Mary’s greeting, the infant leaped in her womb, and Elizabeth, filled with the holy Spirit, cried out in a loud voice and said, ‘Most blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb. [emphasis added for part of the Hail Mary prayer].  And how does this happen to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me?  For at the moment the sound of your greeting reached my ears, the infant in my womb leaped for joy.  Blessed are you who believed that what was spoken to you by the Lord would be fulfilled’” (see Luke 39-45).  The feast day for Elizabeth’s husband, Zechariah, is also in November -- on Nov. 15th.  (Note:  these feast days are not celebrated in the Liturgical Calendar for the Dioceses of the United States of America) 
https://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=344 for St. Elizabeth and
https://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=2069 for St. Zechariah (aka St. Zachariah or St. Zachary)

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* 2. Magnificat and Ave Maria are two names for the same prayer.

The answer is False

Magnificat is “the title commonly given to the Latin text and vernacular translation of the Canticle (or Song) of Mary that she recites at the time of the Visitation. This canticle begins with ‘My soul proclaims the greatness of the Lord.’”  The prayer known in Latin as the Ave Maria [or Hail Mary has two parts:  “the first part of the prayer praises God for the gifts He gave to Mary as Mother of the Redeemer; the second part seeks her maternal intercession for the members of the Body of Christ, the Church, of which she is the Mother.”
From:  http://www.usccb.org/prayer-and-worship/prayers-and-devotions/mary/marian-glossary.cfm

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* 3. Saint Andrew, whose feast day is November 30th, was not:

The answer is Martyred by beheading in Patras

“St. Andrew, also known as Andrew the Apostle, was a Christian Apostle and the older brother to St. Peter… In the Gospel of Matthew, it is said Jesus was walking along the shore of the Sea of Galilee and saw Andrew and Simon Peter fishing. It is then he asked the two to become disciples and ‘fishers of men.’ … Per Christian tradition, Andrew went on to preach the Good News around the shores of the Black Sea and throughout what is now Greece and Turkey. Andrew was martyred by crucifixion in Patras… on a cross form known as ‘crux decussata,’ which is an X-shaped cross or a ‘saltire.’ Today this is commonly referred to as ‘St. Andrew's Cross.’ It is believed Andrew requested to be crucified this way, because he deemed himself ‘unworthy to be crucified on the same type of cross as Jesus.’"   
Read his story at:  https://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=109

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* 4. What was the faith of Squanto when this Native American assisted the Puritan Pilgrims at the “first Thanksgiving”?

The answer is Catholic

During the early 1600s, Squanto was captured as a young man and was taught English so that he could serve an interpreter with the Indians for some of the earliest English colonists in America.  In 1614, Squanto was taken to Spain to be sold as a slave, but some Franciscan friars rescued him and freed him.  They also taught Squanto the Catholic faith and he was apparently baptized.  He wanted to return to his tribe in America, so he traveled to London to seek transport aboard a ship.  In 1619, Squanto was finally able to return home, but he discovered that his tribe had been wiped out by a plague the previous year.  "It was almost as though God had prepared him perfectly for what happened next: just a year later in 1620, the Pilgrims arrived. They were English Calvinists who were seeking to build a new religious community apart from the Church of England. Little did they know that they would end up being saved by a Catholic!  The Pilgrims had little food and were unprepared for survival in the Americas. Squanto, who spoke great English and had a lot of experience with English culture, reached out to help, teaching them how to grow food in the new landscape. It must have seemed like a miracle to the Pilgrims!"
From:  https://churchpop.com/2016/11/21/the-miraculous-forgotten-catholic-hero-of-the-first-thanksgiving/

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* 5. The Solemnity of Our Lord Jesus Christ, King of the Universe (commonly referred to as the Feast of Christ the King), is always celebrated on:

The answer is The final Sunday of Ordinary Time

On December 11, 1925, the Holy See commanded the observance of the Feast of Christ the King to be held “on a Sunday in order that not only the clergy may perform their duty by saying Mass and reciting the Office, but that the laity too, free from their daily tasks, may in a spirit of holy joy give ample testimony of their obedience and subjection to Christ.”  Also, because this “feast of the Kingship of Christ sets the crowning glory upon the mysteries of the life of Christ already commemorated during the year,” it is to be celebrated at the end of the liturgical year.  “Nations will be reminded by the annual celebration of this feast that not only private individuals but also rulers and princes are bound to give public honor and obedience to Christ. It will call to their minds the thought of the last judgment, wherein Christ, who has been cast out of public life, despised, neglected and ignored, will most severely avenge these insults; for his kingly dignity demands that the State should take account of the commandments of God and of Christian principles, both in making laws and in administering justice, and also in providing for the young a sound moral education.”
From sections 29 and 32 of Qua Primas, the encyclical of Pope Pius IX on the Feast of Christ the King:  http://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-xi/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xi_enc_11121925_quas-primas.html