Environmental education in LTERs

A.  About this survey
The following survey was designed to map the environmental education activities and research initiatives at ILTERs and LTSERs; and to identify colleagues wishing to join our initiative to develop a metric of Sense of Place as a social indicator in socio-ecological systems.
B. Definition of Sense of Place
Sense of Place (SoP) refers to the 'place attachment' and 'meaning' that people or communities create towards a geographical location and thus make it a 'place' (Tuan, 1977). From a biocultural perspective, it also includes cultural and linguistic dimensions as well as institutional and political dimensions that are associated with life habits (Rozzi 2013). People can feel that they are rooted in place, to the extent that it becomes part of their self-identity ('place-identity') and to develop a perception that they can express their full potential only in that place ('self-dependency'). The relationships are reciprocal. Creating positive 'meaning' toward a geographical location can affect the 'place attachment' and vice versa (Kudryavtsev, Krasny, & Stedman, 2012). Likewise, when people refer to their settlement as a 'place', they expand the meanings attributed to it and their attachment to the place (Heidegger, 1977; Stokowski, 2002). However, sometimes, for various reasons, people may develop a sense of alienation towards the location where they live (Relph, 1976; Seamon, 2014).
Recent studies illustrated the willingness of residents who have SoP to adopt responsible behavior in relation to ecosystems that provide them with ecosystem services (Masterson et al., 2017). A relationship also has been found between SoP and the willingness to protect nature, culture and social values (Larson, De Freitas, & Hicks, 2013; Lewicka, 2013). For example, numerous indigenous and other local communities defend their territories as a result of a strong Sense of Place (Maffi and Woodley 2012, Rozzi et al. 2015). 
Evaluation studies of SoP and the identification of factors that influence its development are divided between two main topics:
1. SoP in open lands designated for recreation and leisure - Leisure Studies, Geography and Conservation.
2. SoP towards settlements and communities – Geography, Environmental Psychology, Anthropology, Sociology.
SoP in the interface between these two spaces (communities and the open spaces surrounding them) has received very little attention (Eaton et al., 2019). However, this interface may be very relevant for LTSER platforms and sustainable development of Social-Ecological Systems.
C. Goals of our initiative
The main goal of the initiative is to develop a tool for long-term monitoring of Sense of Place (SoP) for the ILTER network. Evaluating SoP will enable the design of effective environmental education programs to strengthen the resilience of socio-ecological systems (SES hereafter).
Since SES are dynamic, the tool should be sensitive to geographic, cultural and social differences as well as to differences over time. It should also be sensitive to changes in the factors affecting SoP. We hope that through the collaboration of researchers from the ILTER network all over the world, we will be able to develop the most robust SoP metric possible. We can then use this tool to describe and understand similarities and differences in SoP across a wide range of contexts and factors.
Therefore, if you have any interest in joining our initiative, please fill in your contact details at the end of the survey and we will contact you shortly.

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* 1. Details of your LTER / LTSER platform:

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* 2. In light of the many existing definitions of Sense of Place (SoP), what do you think of the definition proposed suggested above with respect to LTER / LTSER activities, and how might you propose to adapt it so that it is relevant at your and other LTER sites?

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* 3. Does your site or platform address SoP, or concepts associated with SoP, with or without explicitly using the term SoP, as a specific focus of its education/engagement program and/or research activities?
If you answered: Yes, please also answer questions 3-9. If the answer is: No, please go to Question 10.

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* 4. What aspects or concepts of SoP are addressed by your LTER's education, engagement and/or research activities?

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* 5. If aspects of SoP are part of education programs, describe the nature of the programming.

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* 6. If aspects of SoP are discussed as part of education programs, which types of geographic areas are referenced vis-a-vis SoP?

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* 7. If SoP is discussed as part of community or public education programming, which types of geographic areas are referenced vis-a-vis SoP?

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* 8. Do you evaluate the influence of these programs on SoP in a broad sense?

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* 9. Do you address SoP in your research and if so how?

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* 10. Are you interested in joining a global LTSER SoP initiative? If so, please mark the ways in which you might get involved (you can mark more than one):

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