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* 1. Informed consent: Nurses perceived level of involvement versus attitudes toward influence of AI technology

You are invited to participate in a research study about nurses’ perceived involvement in the implementation of artificial intelligence (AI) technology and their attitudes toward the influence of that technology on their nursing practice. The goal of this research study is to determine if nurses’ involvement in AI implementation fosters a more positive attitude toward the AI technology. This study is being conducted by Landon Horton, a PhD candidate at Kramer School of Nursing at Oklahoma City University as part of the requirements toward the doctoral degree.

There are 3 qualifications to participate in this study: (1) Be a fully licensed, practicing registered nurse; (2) Work in an acute care setting; (3) Work in a facility that utilizes AI in a clinical function with which nurses must interact.

Participation in this study is voluntary and you may stop at any time before submitting the completed survey. Participation includes answering the online survey that should take approximately 10 minutes. The survey includes questions about your participation in establishing the AI technology in your facility and your attitude about the technology now that it is in place.

Participating in this study may not benefit you directly, but it will help the profession learn if there is a benefit to including nurses in the selection, development, and implementation of AI technology used in the acute healthcare setting. You may skip any questions you don’t want to answer, and you may end the interview at any time.

All information in this study will be kept completely confidential and anonymous. Identifying data will not be collected during this survey. Study findings will be presented in summary form and will not identify participants. As with all online content, there are some risks of data breeches (hacking) when sending information over the internet that are beyond the investigator(s) control.

Please note: You must be 18 or older to participate in this study.

By completing this survey, you are consenting to participate in this study.


If you have any questions about this study, please contact Landon Horton at If you have questions about your rights as a research participant, please contact Liz Diener, Oklahoma City University Institutional Review Board at

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* 2. I have read and understand the informed consent form.

I am at least 18 years of age.

I am a Registered Nurse.

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* 3. I currently work in an acute care setting

*Acute care is a level of health care in which a patient is treated for a brief but severe episode of illness, for conditions that are the result of disease or trauma,

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* 4. Does your place of employment use AI technology in the clinical setting?

*Examples of AI in healthcare include software that provides clinical decision recommendations from available data, clinical alerts triggered by documented data (sepsis alerts, heart failure alerts, etc…), and predictors of high risk for deterioration or re-admission.

**AI is “the science and engineering of intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically observable.” (McCarthy, 2007).

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* 5. Which best describes your age?

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* 6. What is your gender identification?

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* 7. Where do you live?

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* 8. What is your title/position in the acute care setting?

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* 9. Size of hospital?

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* 10. How long have you been a nurse?

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* 11. Rank your level of involvement in incorporating AI technology into nursing practice.

  Not involved (0% of time) Slightly involved (1-25% of time) Some involved (25-50% of time) Often involved (50-75% of time) Highly involved (75-100% of time)
Selection – Identifying the need for AI technology, choosing the software/program, individualizing the technology to the facility needs.
Planning – Deciding the key personnel on the implementation project, establishing implementation timeline, designing the approach for training staff and initiating the technology.
Implementation – Participated by teaching others the technology, planning how and where the tehology would be initiated and evaluated, performing early evaluation and assuring ongoing success.
Overall, how do you perceive your involvement in the process of incorporating the AI technology into your facility’s clinical practice?

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* 12. Rank your agreement concerning the influence of the AI technology on nursing through the questions below.

  Completely agree Agree No idea Disagree Completely disagree
Using technology makes nurses professionally uncertain
Using technology in caring for patients often interferes with providing adequate nursing care
I am not sure about the usefulness of technology for my work.
The increased use of technology in nursing care has downgraded the nursing profession
Technology improves the care of the patient and his/her recovery process.
Using technology in care requires high-tech skills
Mastery of technology has helped nurses to control their work environment.
Technology directs and controls treatment.
Technology increases the safety of treatment.
Technology reduces the nurse's workload.
Technology is not easy to handle

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* 13. Continue ranking your agreement concerning the influence of the AI technology on nursing through the questions below.

  Completely agree Agree No idea Disagree Completely disagree
Technology distracts nurses’ ability to connect with or relate to their patients
Technology can create ethical dilemma (when physician used to decide whether or not withdraw medical treatment)
Using technology in patient care is time-consuming for nurses
In providing care to technology-dependent patients, the priority is with the technology, not with the patient
Life sustaining technologies in intensive care unit, limit the space needed for patient care
Technology does not interfere with patient care
Technology facilitates patient care.
The influx of technological machines often makes nurses neglect patients
Because of the application of modern machineries, in case of inevitable death of patient nurses often become frustrated.
I think even with the help of technology, there is not any more spare time in nursing
The entrance of technology has promoted the nursing profession
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