Josephson's Exemplary Policing Survey #1

INTRODUCTION. This survey is a research project of the Josephson Institute of Ethics' Exemplary Policing Initiative. Survey results, policing news, provocative articles and a full archive of critical reports and other resources can be found at the Institute's website at www.josephsonsexemplarypolicing.org. CONFIDENTIALITY. Only the Josephson Institute has access to the responses. No attempt to connect any opinion with the person making it will be made. Please be candid.

* 2. RANK / POSITION. (you may check more than one)

* 3. SIZE OF POLICE OR SHERIFF DEPARTMENT. (number of sworn officers)

* 4. Gender

* 5. TELL US WHAT YOU THINK. The following list of statements summarizes common beliefs and proposals. Please indicate whether you agree or disagree with each statement.

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree No Opinion
27. In the past 5 years, officer fear that they will be killed or injured in an officer-initiated encounter have substantially increased.
1. Body armor is an essential piece of equipment in today’s environment.
21. Aggressive stop and frisk strategies used in hot spot crime areas to get weapons off the street and deter criminal conduct make the community safer. 
32. The level of public animosity toward police is a major factor inhibiting recruitment of new officers.
12. It is inevitable that public pressure and politics will result in a requirement that all law enforcement agencies employ both dash and body cameras for all patrol officers.
28. In the past 5 years, the actual likelihood that an officer will be killed or injured in an officer-initiated encounter have substantially increased.
9. Overall, the costs, including potential misuse of dash and body camera videos, outweigh the benefits. 
6. Use of dash and body cameras has, overall, improved officer safety.
23. Special training on racial profiling and implicit bias are likely to have a significant positive effect on officer behavior.
30. In the past 5 years, the actual likelihood that an officer will be killed or injured in an ambush-type situation have substantially increased.[If you have any ideas of what can be done to reduce the risks to officers please use the comment box].
13. I support current recommendations to place greater emphasis on de-escalation tactics and the use of lethal force only as a last resort.
18. The amount of actual and implicit racial bias in police organizations is minor and has not contributed significantly to the number of officer involved shootings and other uses of force of African American males.
26. In order to increase the credibility of investigations of officer involved shootings resulting in death, agencies ought to have the option to submit the issue to an outside independent regional or state process. 
15. Internal use of force policies should exceed the moral minimum of the criminal standard by imposing on officers a duty to evaluate and employ de-escalation and other strategies before using lethal force.
29. In the past 5 years, officer fear that they will be killed or injured in an ambush-type situation have substantially increased.
24. Special training on dealing with persons with mental illness or disabilities are likely to have a significant positive effect on officer behavior.
25. Special training focusing on de-escalation and other alternatives to the use of lethal force are likely to have a significant positive effect on officer behavior.
19. Explicit and implicit racial bias is a significant contributory factor in some law enforcement agencies that accounts for the number of officer involved shootings and other uses of force of African American males.
7. Use of dash and body cameras has, overall, improved police-community relations.
5. Use of dash and body cameras has, overall, had a positive impact on the quality of policing.
20. Stop and frisk is an important law enforcement tool that should be used provided it complies with Terry v Ohio and avoids racial profiling.
31. The increased risk of harm in modern policing is a major factor inhibiting recruitment of new officers.
11. Except in extraordinary cases, videos of officer-involved shootings should be made public as soon as reasonably possible.
17. The amount of actual racial bias in police organizations is minor and has not contributed significantly to the number of traffic and street stops of African American males.
16. Use of force policies that seek to impose a higher standard on police officers than the criminal standard are unfair and unwise.
22. Aggressive stop and frisk strategies used in hot spot crime areas to get weapons off the street and deter criminal conduct may alienate the community and do more harm than good. 
10. Except in extraordinary cases, videos of officer-involved shootings should not be made public.
8. Use of dash and body cameras has, overall, protected officers and the department from false and unfair charges.
2. All police agencies should have semi-automatic weapons readily available.
4. Open carry laws make the job of policing more dangerous.
3. Private citizens should not be permitted to buy or use semi-automatic weapons.

* 6. Are These Problems? Please indicate whether you think the listed behaviors or attitudes are serious or minor in the law enforcement profession (not necessarily your agency).

  Major problem Significant problem Minor problem No problem No opinion or N/A
Low morale.
Poor work ethic.
Fabrication or distortion in reporting, affidavits and testifying.
Abuse of sick days and workers comp benefits.
Overemphasis on statistics (e.g., number of arrests) rather than real and meaningful police outcomes.
Code of silence preventing officers from being accountable and honest re: misconduct of other officers.
Occasional arrogance, disrespect or abuse of power by officers toward citizens.
Occasional arrogance, disrespect or abuse of power by supervisory officers toward subordinates.
Alcohol or other substance abuse by officers.
Off duty DUIs committed by officers.
Domestic abuse committed by officers.
Excessive use of force.
Sexual misconduct of officers
Improper racial or ethnic bias affecting public.
Officers failing to do what they should do because of fear of criticism, discipline or lawsuits
Persistent absences, tardiness or missing court dates.
Lack of physical fitness of some patrol officers.

* 7. ABOUT YOUR AGENCY. (As to questions asking whether your agency has written policies on an issue, if your answer is 'yes,' and you are willing to share the policy so that we can post it on the Exemplary Policing website, please send the text or a link to the policy to msj@jiethics.org.). Skip this section if you are not currently working for a law enforcement agency.

Yes No Don't know
1. Has your agency modified its use of force policies within the past five years?
2. Do you expect to modify your agency’s use of force policy within next 12 months?
3. Does your agency have written policies about the release of dash cam and body cam videos?
4. Does your agency require officers to wear body armor?
5. Does your agency require all cruisers to have dash cams?
6. Does your agency require sworn officers on patrol to have body cams?
7. If your agency does not require, body cams, does it allow officers to acquire and use their own body cam?
8. Do you think most officers in your agency support mandatory use of body cams?
9. Does your agency have a written policy about whether and when dash and body cam videos will be released to the public?
10. Does your agency intend to create or modify a policy on the release of dash and body cam videos to the public?
11. Do you favor national standards for use of force?
12. Does your agency employ a constitutional stop and frisk strategy (one that specifically prohibits racial profiling)?
13. Have you read the Final Report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing
14. Have you read the Police executive Research Forum (PERF) Guidelines on use of force?
15. Do you find these sorts of reports useful?
16. Has your agency increased or enhanced required training on the use of force in the past five years? 
17. Does your agency currently require training with a specific focus on de-escalation strategies?
18. Does your agency require officers to attend special training focusing on racial profiling and implicit bias?
19. Does your agency require officers to attend special training focusing on dealing with persons with mental illness or disability?
20. Do you think all police agencies should require officers to attend special training focusing on de-escalation and other strategies to reduce the use of lethal force?

* 8. Which of the following features of the Exemplary Policing Website (www.josephsonsexemplarypolicing.org) are you likely to use?

* 9. What policing publications do you read regularly (at least once per month)? Please list.

* 10. Are you interested in any of the following opportunities to contribute to the Exemplary Policing initiative? You may check more than one box.If you are interested please include your email address below so we can contact you.

* 11. Any further comments or suggestions? 

Thanks for your time. We look forward to serving you.

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