Strength of Relationships

Collaborative relationships are those in which there is a clear and strong agreement on the vision for the whole. Trust is high, information sharing is confidential, there is a high frequency of communication, and there is both shared power and shared accountability. This is the strongest form of relationship between organizations at the global level.

A Coordinative relationship is one in which explicit agreements exist about the roles and responsibilities that each party is playing. Information sharing is centered around projects, communications are directed towards specific purposes, and the commitment and accountability is also project related. This is the second strongest relationship type among global organizations.

Cooperative relationships are limited in scope, information sharing is guarded, and communications are infrequent. Commitment and authority remains entirely in the hands of the individual parties and is not shared. Accountability is not shared. Cooperative relationships aim to build consensus, and facilitate trust building, but are not purposeful.

Please click on the type of relationship that your organization shares with each observing organization listed below.


Mandell, Myrna and Robyn Keast. “Evaluating Network Arrangements: Toward Revised Performance Measures.” Public Performance & Management Review (30:4) 2007: 574-597.

Question Title

* 1. For each of the organizations listed below, please indicate whether your organization shares a Collaborative, Coordinative, or Cooperative relationship.

  Collaborative (Strongest) Coordinative (Purpose Driven) Cooperative (Weakest)
International CLIVAR
US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP)
Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)
Group on Earth Observations (GEO)
Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR)
Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)
Data Buoy Cooperation Panel (DBCP)
International Digital Object Identifiers (DOI)
Global Carbon Project (GCP)
GEO Biodiversity Observation Network (GEOBON)
Global Framework for Climate Service (GFCS)
Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST)
Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS)
GODAE OceanView (GODAE OceanView)
Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE)
Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS)
Ocean Tracking Network (OTN)
Global Ocean Ship-based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP)
CLIVAR Global Synthesis and Observations Panel (GSOP)
GOOS Steering Committee (GSC)
International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES)
International Council for Science (ICSU)
Intergovernmental Committee for the Global Ocean Observing System (I-GOOS)
International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP)
Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE)
Integrated Marine Observing System, Australia (IMOS)
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC)
International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group (IOCCG)
International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP)
International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE)
Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS)
Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)
Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM)
Joint WMO-IOC Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM)
Multi-sensor Improved Sea Surface Temperature (MISST)
Ocean Biogeographic Information System (IOC) (OBIS)
Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB)
Ocean Observations Panel for Climate (GOOS-GCOS-WCRP) (OOPC)
Ocean Surface Topography Science Team (OSTST)
North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES)
Panel for Integrated Coastal Observations (GOOS) (PICO)
Partnership for Observation of the Global Ocean (POGO)
Sister Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science (SAHFOS)
Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR)
Scientific Committee on Ocean Research (SCOR)
Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT)
Ship of Opportunity Programme (SOOP JCOMM)
The United Nations
US National Weather Service Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS)
World Climate Research Programme (WMO-IOC-ICSU) (WCRP)
World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE)