HYBRID ADAPTIVE AND DYNAMIC (HANDY) MODEL

Part 1 of 6

PROJECT TITLE :
AN IMPROVED HYBRID ADAPTIVE AND DYNAMIC (HANDY) AGILE MODEL TO ENHANCE CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS IN DELIVERY OF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
Introduction and Background 
 
The study on the successful development of software projects is motivated by the current statistics in the average successful performance of projects in the software industry. The CHAOS report in 2016 (Table 01) indicates there has been an average success percentage of 27%-31% with not much improvement over the last 5 years. Development methodologies have been moving towards agile methods from traditional methods but the use and adoption has not been promising and more research has to been done.

Modern Resolution for All Projects 
(Table 01: 2016 CHOAS Report on IT Project Performance)

Current research has also indicated that, in future, particular Agile methods will not be used in isolation, e.g. such as Scrum or eXtreme Programming (XP)). It would look at a Hybrid method (right mix and match of traditional and agile, practices and techniques) to a situation and problem in projects. In other words, application development professionals  will apply the most appropriate hybrid process to each problem which has to be adaptive and dynamic. This hybrid could be a combination of Waterfall, Agile, and other techniques such as Kanban.

To facilitate this research, a set of questionnaires have been designed to survey and collect data. It is based on a question-by-question basis to be provided to software developers. The development methodologies of both traditional and agile are focused and scenarios where there is mix and match (hybrids) are studied in depth.  There will not be any panels that will be used as a representative of the software developers’ population. The statistical data will also be used for descriptive and inferential purposes only.

The outcome of the result is expected to provide a more robust and flexible process and model that evolves in response to the situation rather than a well-documented, inflexible process that assumes that all problems are the same. These  processes will be about more than just development; they will also address operations concerns and, more importantly, business changes. And of course it will be agile with a mix and match to represent an improved Hybrid Agile Model.

This emphasis on people, interactions and self-organization lead to the consideration that agile software development teams present a number of emergent capabilities, which characterize them as complex adaptive systems

Chaos Resolution by Agile Versus Waterfall 
(Table 02: 2015 CHOAS Report on Project Performance by Agile and Waterfall Methodologies)


Part 1:
To identify a set of significant characteristics and benefits in using a Hybrid Approach in Traditional Methods

In this part we look at the usage of the more popular traditional software development methodologies, viz.

-          Waterfall - consists of 6 phases (initiation, analysis, design, implementation, testing/validation and deployment.
-          Spiral - has 4 phases: Planning, Risk Analysis, Engineering and Evaluation,
-          Rapid Application Development, - software development methodology that uses various tools and techniques to
produce prototypes with minimally-coded software applications, creating predefined components, structures and methods to quickly develop software models. However, the prototypes lack full-scale functionality. Used for demonstration and
requirement gathering. To eventually develop complete solutions.
-          Rational Unified Process – consists of 4 major stages (inception, elaboration, configuration and transition. Have 9 disciplines (5 main and 4 supports) I) Inception: The seed idea is developed to a sufficient level to justify entering the elaboration phase. 2) Elaboration: Software architecture and detailed design are elaborated. 3) Construction: Software is  coded to the point at which it is ready for release to the test team or user community. 4) Transition: Software is turned over to the user environment. RUP it is not a prescriptive process, but rather a customizable process framework, which can be tailored according to specific process needs V-Model – is an SDLC model where execution of processes is in a sequential manner in a V-shape. It is also known as  Verification and Validation model. The V-Model is an extension of the waterfall model and is based on the association of a testing phase for each corresponding development stage.
-          Prototyping method is not included as it uses neither traditional nor agile.

Based on current research, the key areas that are used in these methodologies are plan driven, linear approaches with phases, processes which will require changes that adjusts the scope, timeline, resource needs and cost estimates.

We intend to find if software development projects are better managed if the various traditional methodologies are combined or mixed.  Some of the ideas used in this questionnaire were suggested by Qumer and Henderson (2008) in evaluating the degree of applicability of individual methodologies.  The approach used in this section of the question here was designed for different context where we wanted to combine or mix the methodologies, viz., on the method and its software development characteristics.
The following questions are used to collect data and identify a set of significant traditional characteristics

Questions – Traditional Software Development Methodologies

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* 1. P1Q1) How many years of experience do you have with traditional software development methodologies?

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* 2. P1Q2) In developing software projects, do you use more than one traditional software development methodology? If Yes, please select Yes button and go to P1Q7. If No, please select No button and go to next question.

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* 3. P1Q3) Which one of the methodologies do you use?

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* 4. P1Q4) Why you use only one traditional methodology?(You can select more than one)

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* 5. P1Q5) If you had the opportunity to use more than one methodology, would it be easier to achieve success in the project?

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* 6. P1Q6) If you were given the opportunity to use more than one traditional methodology, indicate your expected degree of improvement for the following suggested significant improvement characteristics of traditional methodologies in the table below.

  1 -No 2- Slight 3 – Moderate 4 –Neutral 5-Average 6-Large 7-Tremendous
Traditional Methodologies Improvement Characteristic - 
1. Linearity in phases > Using and reworking the different phases in a non-linear fashion
Traditional Methodologies Improvement Characteristic -
2. Changes are difficult to adapt and adopt > Creating a Flexible environment - Simplicity in managing changes, especially unexpected changes, during the project.
Traditional Methodologies Improvement Characteristic -
3. Focus on Presentations which are limited hands-on or demonstrations > Focus on Presentations which are limited hands-on or demonstrations
Traditional Methodologies Improvement Characteristic -
4. Complex for Small and Medium sized projects > Independent of the size of projects - Supported large in addition to small and medium projects
Traditional Methodologies Improvement Characteristic -
5. Limited Feedback > Frequency of feedback based on the progress and/or severity of the project in trouble
Traditional Methodologies Improvement Characteristic -
6. Project Team > Size of teams - Supported large in additional to small teams
Traditional Methodologies Improvement Characteristic -
7. Team Dynamics > Team Dynamics -   frequent and short meetings instead of periodic and lengthy meetings.
Traditional Methodologies Improvement Characteristic -
8. Development Style > The development style (which development method -iterative, rapid, etc. – does if cover)
Traditional Methodologies Improvement Characteristic -
9. Specialised Skills > The development style (which development method -iterative, rapid, etc. – does if cover)
Traditional Methodologies Improvement Characteristic -
10. Weak Implementation > Implementation is done on a periodic basis as the modules are completed and delivered.
Traditional Methodologies Improvement Characteristic -
11. Minimal Stakeholder Involvement > Stakeholder involvement are part of the modules testing and delivery process.
Select the Done Button and Go to Part 2 of the questionnaire (Select weblink Part 2)

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* 7. P1Q7) Which traditional methodologies did you use? (select more than one)

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* 8. P1Q8) In combining or mixing the methodologies, which of the following did you consider?

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* 9. P1Q9) Does the project failure rate typically increase with project size?

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* 10. P1Q10) Did the traditional methodology move to a ‘compressed’ traditional methodology, i.e. testing based on specifications (designing the functions and rolling out these functions) rather than on code completion which provides for shorter delivery cycles?

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* 11. P1Q11) When you mixed or combined the traditional methodologies did you see an improvement in the following characteristics with respect to the traditional methodologies used? Indicate the methodologies that support the improvement (tick more than one) and highlight the degree of hybrid support (tick any of 1 - 7 that applies).

  Waterfall Spiral RAD RUP V-Model Others 1-No 2-Weak 3-Moderate 4-Neutral 5-Average 6-Large 7-Tremendous
Traditional Methodologies Characteristic Improvement -
1. Linearity in phases
Using and reworking the different phases in a non-linear fashion
Traditional Methodologies Characteristic Improvement -
2. Changes are difficult to adapt and adopt.
Creating a Flexible environment - Simplicity in managing changes, especially unexpected changes, during the project.
Traditional Methodologies Characteristic Improvement -
3. Focus on Presentations which are limited hands-on or demonstrations
Demonstrations instead of Presentations as these provide guidance to further development
Traditional Methodologies Characteristic Improvement -
4. Complex for Small and Medium sized projects
Independent of the size of projects - Supported large in addition to small and medium projects
Traditional Methodologies Characteristic Improvement -
5. Limited Feedback
Frequency of feedback based on the progress and/or severity of the project in trouble
Traditional Methodologies Characteristic Improvement -
6. Project Team
Size of teams - Supported large in additional to small teams
Traditional Methodologies Characteristic Improvement -
7. Team Dynamics – focus on individual work
Team Dynamics -   the focus is on combined effort as a team both in development and delivery,
Traditional Methodologies Characteristic Improvement -
8. Development Style
The development style (which development method -iterative, rapid, etc. – does if cover)
Traditional Methodologies Characteristic Improvement -
9. Specialised skills
Specialised skills are a prerequisite in recruitment and assignment of tasks in the projects team.
Traditional Methodologies Characteristic Improvement -
10. Weak Implementation
Implementation is done on a periodic basis as the modules are completed and delivered.
Traditional Methodologies Characteristic Improvement -
11. Minimal Stakeholder Involvement
Stakeholder involvement are part of the modules testing and delivery process
Select the Done button and Go to Part 2 of the questionnaire (Select weblink Part 2)

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