A vaccine contains inactivated (dead) influenza virus. Which pattern recognition receptor(s) would detect PAMPs from this vaccine?

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* 1. A vaccine contains inactivated (dead) influenza virus. Which pattern recognition receptor(s) would detect PAMPs from this vaccine?

Why do MHC I and MHC II molecules generally bind different peptides?

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* 2. Why do MHC I and MHC II molecules generally bind different peptides?

Which of the following cell populations is most dependent on costimulation by the B7:CD28 pathway?

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* 3. Which of the following cell populations is most dependent on costimulation by the B7:CD28 pathway?

Which of the following functions mainly to inhibit T-cell responses?

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* 4. Which of the following functions mainly to inhibit T-cell responses?

Which of the following cytokines is required for both Th17 and Treg differentiation?

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* 5. Which of the following cytokines is required for both Th17 and Treg differentiation?

Which of the following transcription factors is specifically involved in Th1 differentiation?

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* 6. Which of the following transcription factors is specifically involved in Th1 differentiation?

Which of the following genes is defective in the X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome

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* 7. Which of the following genes is defective in the X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome

Which of the following antibodies can both cross the placenta and fix complement efficiently?

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* 8. Which of the following antibodies can both cross the placenta and fix complement efficiently?

Patients with a selective immunodeficiency of natural killer cells would most likely be expected to present will the following clinical problems:

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* 9. Patients with a selective immunodeficiency of natural killer cells would most likely be expected to present will the following clinical problems:

Invariant NK T cells, some of which express CD4, recognize:

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* 10. Invariant NK T cells, some of which express CD4, recognize:

Which of the following proteins plays a role in negative selection of CD4+ T-cells during their maturation in the thymus?

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* 11. Which of the following proteins plays a role in negative selection of CD4+ T-cells during their maturation in the thymus?

Mutations in the IL-2 gene cause autoimmunity because IL-2 is involved in:

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* 12. Mutations in the IL-2 gene cause autoimmunity because IL-2 is involved in:

A 23 year old woman presents to the ER 24 hours after mulching in the yard and then going for a 4 mile run. She is complaining of dyspnea, but the CXR is clear and oxygenation is normal. She is sent home and told it is most likely mono (go figure). Twenty-four hours later she returns and has diffuse infiltrates along with her previous symptoms. She is admitted. She has a mild leukocytosis and an ESR of 100 mm/hr. Past history notable for frequent URI in infancy that resolved and an episode of “cat scratch disease” in childhood that resolved with some antibiotics. Over the next week in the ICU she goes from dyspneic to intubated, despite antibiotics (CAP) and steroids (hypersensitivity pneumonitis). An open lung biopsy is finally done and it shows invasive aspergillosis. You correctly reason that she must have CGD, since there are no other genetic syndromes with invasive aspergillosis. Which of the following scenarios is incorrect?

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* 13. A 23 year old woman presents to the ER 24 hours after mulching in the yard and then going for a 4 mile run. She is complaining of dyspnea, but the CXR is clear and oxygenation is normal. She is sent home and told it is most likely mono (go figure). Twenty-four hours later she returns and has diffuse infiltrates along with her previous symptoms. She is admitted. She has a mild leukocytosis and an ESR of 100 mm/hr. Past history notable for frequent URI in infancy that resolved and an episode of “cat scratch disease” in childhood that resolved with some antibiotics. Over the next week in the ICU she goes from dyspneic to intubated, despite antibiotics (CAP) and steroids (hypersensitivity pneumonitis). An open lung biopsy is finally done and it shows invasive aspergillosis. You correctly reason that she must have CGD, since there are no other genetic syndromes with invasive aspergillosis. Which of the following scenarios is incorrect?

Drugs currently used for immunosuppression in solid-organ transplant recipients target:

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* 14. Drugs currently used for immunosuppression in solid-organ transplant recipients target:

Peyer’s patches are in the large intestine. (False)

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* 15. Peyer’s patches are in the large intestine. (False)

What type of autoimmunity can be transferred to the fetus during pregnancy?


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* 16. What type of autoimmunity can be transferred to the fetus during pregnancy?


Rheumatoid arthritis is thought to be a _____mediated disease.

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* 17. Rheumatoid arthritis is thought to be a _____mediated disease.

Autoimmune diseases share common features including:

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* 18. Autoimmune diseases share common features including:

Which cytokine milieux is associated with allergy?

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* 19. Which cytokine milieux is associated with allergy?

Please provide us with your contact information.

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* 20. Please provide us with your contact information.

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